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f_i为前i个最小代价

s_i为前i个字符串总字符数

f_i=\min(f_j+|(s_i-s_j)+(i-j-1)-L|^p)

可以发现这个方程有决策单调性

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
namespace ZDY{
    #pragma GCC optimize(3)
    #define il __inline__ __attribute__ ((always_inline))
    #define register
    #define ll long long
    #define ull unsigned long long
    #define db double
    #define sht short
    #define MB template <class T>il
    #define Fur(i,x,y) for(int i(x);i<=y;++i)
    #define Fdr(i,x,y) for(int i(x);i>=y;--i)
    #define fl(i,x) for(int i(head[x]),to;to=e[i].to,i;i=e[i].nxt)
    #define clr(x,y) memset(x,y,sizeof(x))
    #define cpy(x,y) memcpy(x,y,sizeof(x))
    #define fin(s) freopen(s".in","r",stdin)
    #define fout(s) freopen(s".out","w",stdout)
    #define fcin ios::sync_with_stdio(false)
    #define l2(n) ((int)(log2(n)))
    #define inf 2122219134
    MB T ABS(T x){return x>0?x:-x;}
    MB T MAX(T x,T y){return x>y?x:y;}
    MB T MIN(T x,T y){return x<y?x:y;}
    MB T GCD(T x,T y){return y?GCD(y,x%y):x;}
    MB void SWAP(T &x,T &y){T t=x;x=y;y=t;}
}using namespace ZDY;using namespace std;
namespace IO{const int str=1<<20;static char in_buf[str],*in_s,*in_t;bool __=0;il char gc(){return (in_s==in_t)&&(in_t=(in_s=in_buf)+fread(in_buf,1,str,stdin)),in_s==in_t?EOF:*in_s++;}il void in(string &ch){ch.clear();if(__)return;char c;while((c=gc())!=EOF&&isspace(c));if(c==EOF){__=1;return;}ch+=c;while((c=gc())!=EOF&&!isspace(c))ch+=c;if(c==EOF)__=1;}il void in(char &ch){if(__)return;char c;while((c=gc())!=EOF&&isspace(c));if(c==EOF)__=1;else ch=c;}il void in(char *ch){*ch='\0';if(__)return;char c;while((c=gc())!=EOF&&isspace(c));if(c==EOF){__=1;return;}*ch=c;ch++;while((c=gc())!=EOF&&!isspace(c))*ch=c,ch++;if(c==EOF)__=1;*ch='\0';}template<typename T>il void in(T &x){if(__)return;char c=gc();bool f=0;while(c!=EOF&&(c<'0'||c>'9'))f^=(c=='-'),c=gc();if(c==EOF){__=1;return;}x=0;while(c!=EOF&&'0'<=c&&c<='9')x=x*10+c-48,c=gc();if(c==EOF)__=1;if(f)x=-x;}template<typename T,typename ... arr>il void in(T &x,arr & ... y){in(x),in(y...);}const char ln='\n';static char out_buf[str],*out_s=out_buf,*out_t=out_buf+str;il void flush(){fwrite(out_buf,1,out_s-out_buf,stdout);out_s=out_buf;}il void pt(char c){(out_s==out_t)?(fwrite(out_s=out_buf,1,str,stdout),*out_s++=c):(*out_s++=c);}il void out(const char* s){while(*s)pt(*s++);}il void out(char* s){while(*s)pt(*s++);}il void out(char c){pt(c);}il void out(string s){for(int i=0;s[i];i++)pt(s[i]);}template<typename T>il void out(T x){if(!x){pt('0');return;}if(x<0)pt('-'),x=-x;char a[50],t=0;while(x)a[t++]=x%10,x/= 10;while(t--)pt(a[t]+'0');}template<typename T,typename ... arr>il void out(T x,arr & ... y){out(x),out(y...);}}using namespace IO;
#define N 100011
int n,L,P,s[N],k[N],pre[N];
#define ld long double
ld f[N];
ld calc(int i,int j){
    return f[j]+pow(ABS(s[i]-s[j]-L-1),P);
}
char ch[N][33];
il int bound(int x,int y){
    int l=x,r=n+1,ret=n+1,m;
    while(l<=r){
        m=(l+r)>>1;
        if(calc(m,x)>=calc(m,y))
            ret=m,r=m-1;
        else l=m+1;
    }
    return ret;
}
int q[N];
void work(){
    in(n,L,P);
    Fur(i,1,n){
        in(ch[i]);
        s[i]=s[i-1]+strlen(ch[i])+1;
    }

    int h=1,t=1;
    q[1]=0;
    Fur(i,1,n){
        while(h<t&&k[h]<=i)++h;
        f[i]=calc(i,q[h]);pre[i]=q[h];
        while(h<t&&k[t-1]>=bound(q[t],i))--t;
        k[t]=bound(q[t],i);
        q[++t]=i;
    }

    if(f[n]>1e18)out("Too hard to arrange\n");
    else{
        out((ll)f[n],ln);
        int i;
        for(q[t=0]=i=n;i;q[++t]=i=pre[i]);
        for(;t;--t){
            for(i=q[t]+1;i<q[t-1];++i)
                out(ch[i]," ");
            out(ch[i],ln);
        }
    }
    out("--------------------\n");
}
int main(){
    int T;in(T);
    while(T--)work();
    flush();
}
LG 1912 [NOI2009]诗人小G
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